Xin Guan Yi Qing Hui Zen Yang Jie Shu ? Mei Mei : Ke Neng You 4 Zhong Fang Shi

Yuan Biao Ti : Xin Guan Yi Qing Hui Zen Yang Jie Shu ? Mei Mei : Ke Neng You 4 Zhong Fang Shi

Can Kao Xiao Xi Wang 2 Yue 29 Ri Bao Dao Mei Mei Cheng , Yu Guo Qu Fa Sheng Guo De Suo You Yi Qing Yi Yang , Zhe Ci De Yi Qing Zhong Hui Jie Shu 。 Mei Guo Qu Wei Ke Xue Wang Zhan 2 Yue 27 Ri Yu Ce Liao Ci Ci Yi Qing Ke Neng De Jie Shu Fang Shi 。

Chuan Bo Bei You Xiao E Zhi

Zhuan Jia Shuo , Yi Zhong Ke Neng Xing Shi , Dang Zu Gou Duo De Ren Tong Guo Gan Ran Huo Jie Zhong Yi Miao Chan Sheng Mian Yi Li Shi , Huan Shang Zhe Zhong Ji Bing De Bing Li Jiang Kai Shi Jian Shao 。 Ling Yi Zhong Ke Neng De Qing Kuang Shi , Zhe Zhong Bing Du Jiang Ji Xu Chuan Bo , Cheng Wei Yi Zhong Chang Jian De Hu Xi Dao Bing Du 。

Zhuan Jia Shuo , Cong Mu Qian De Qing Kuang Kan , Ci Ci Yi Qing Bu Da Ke Neng Bei Kong Zhi Zai Shao Shu Ji Ge Di Qu 。

Mi Xie Gen Da Xue Liu Xing Bing Xue Fu Jiao Shou Ao Bu Lei · Ge Deng Shuo :“ Zhe Zhong Bing Du Zai Quan Qiu Fan Wei Nei Chuan Bo De Ke Neng Xing Bian De Yue Lai Yue Da 。”

Ge Deng Zai Jie Shou Cai Fang Shi Shuo , Kong Zhi Bing Du Huo Ling Qi Fang Man Chuan Bo Su Du De Zui Jia Fang Shi Shi , Cai Qu Ge Li He Chu Xing Xian Zhi Deng E Zhi Cuo Shi 。 Shi Shi Shang , Quan Shi Jie Du Zai Nu Li Zu Zhi Xin Guan Bing Du De Chuan Bo 。

Dang Bing Du Mei You Zu Gou De Yi Gan Ren Qun Ke Gong Gan Ran Shi , Liu Xing Bing Jiu Jie Shu Liao 。

Bing Du Huo Fa Sheng Bian Yi

Niu Yue Da Xue Liu Xing Bing Xue Jiao Shou Qiao Shu Ya · Ai Po Si Tan Shuo , Ru Guo Bing Du Yu Gan Ran Zhe Zhi Wai De Ling Yi Ren Fa Sheng Jie Chu , Dan Na Ren Bu Yi Gan Ran Zhe Zhong Ji Bing , Na Me Zhe Tiao Chuan Bo Lian Jiu Bei Qia Duan Liao ,“ Tong Chang De Qing Kuang Shi , Gan Ran Bing Du De Ren Zu Gou Duo , Yi Gan Zhe Que Bu Gou Duo , Bu Zu Yi Wei Chi Chuan Bo Lian De Yun Zhuan ”。

Bao Dao Cheng , Ru Guo Xin Guan Bing Du Yu Liu Gan Bing Du ( Huo Qi Ta Hui Yin Fa Pu Tong Gan Mao De Guan Zhuang Bing Du ) De Chang Jian Du Zhu Lei Si , Na Me Sui Zhuo Tian Qi Bian Nuan , Gan Ran Bing Li Shu You Ke Neng Xia Jiang 。 Ran Hou , Ta Ke Neng Hui Zai Jin Nian Qiu Dong Ji Juan Tu Zhong Lai 。

Ge Deng Shuo , Li Lun Shang Jiang , Huan Jing Zhuang Kuang Ke Neng Hui Ying Xiang Bing Du De Chuan Bo , Zhe Jiu Shi Wei Shi Me You Xie Bing Du Ju You Ji Jie Xing ,“ Dan Zhe Yi Dian Zhen De Bing Bu Que Ding , Yin Wei Liu Gan Deng Bing Du Zai Re Dai Di Qu Yu Zai Wen Dai Di Qu Yi Yang Ye Hui Gou Cheng Yan Zhong Wen Ti ”。

Ling Yi Zhong Ke Neng Xing Shi , Xin Guan Bing Du Hui Yi Yi Zhong Qian Zai You Yi De Fang Shi Bian Yi , Dao Zhi Qi Gan Ran Ren Lei De Nan Du Shang Sheng 。2002 Nian , Yi Zhong Lei Si De Guan Zhuang Bing Du Shou Ci You Dong Wu Chuan Bo Gei Ren Lei , Bing Dao Zhi Ming Wei Yan Zhong Ji Xing Hu Xi Zong He Zheng (SARS) De Ji Bing Bao Fa 。

SARS Chuan Bo Zhi Bao Kuo Jia Na Da Zai Nei De 20 Duo Ge Guo Jia He Di Qu , Yin De Ren Men Dan Xin Zhe Zhong Ji Bing Jiang Zai Bei Mei Si Nue 。 Mei Guo Nuo Si Wei Er Yi Liao Bao Jian Gong Si Quan Qiu Wei Sheng Zong Jian 、 Niu Yue Ji Zhen Shi Yi Sheng Ai Li Ke · Qiao Ai – Pei Ya Shuo :“ Dang SARS Lai Dao Jia Na Da Shi , Wo Men Dan Xin Na Er Jiang Cheng Wei You Yi Ge Bao Fa Zhong Xin 。”

Ta Shuo , Yi Qing Zui Zhong Zhu Jian Ping Xi , Bu Fen Yuan Yin Shi Cai Qu Liao You Xiao De Gong Gong Wei Sheng Kong Zhi Cuo Shi 。 Dan Ta Shuo , Huan You Yi Ge Yuan Yin Shi ,SARS Sui Ji Fa Sheng Liao Bian Yi —— Jiu Xiang Bing Du Tong Chang Du Hui Bian Yi Yi Yang —— Ta Bian De Geng Yan Zhong , Que Ye Geng Nan Chuan Ran Gei Ren Lei 。

Yan Zhi Chu You Xiao Yi Miao

Bao Dao Cheng , Ge Guo De Wei Sheng Guan Yuan Bing Wei Xian Zuo Yi Pang 、 Deng Zhuo Kan Zhe Zhong Bing Du Jiang Ru He Fa Zhan , Quan Shi Jie De Yan Jiu Ren Yuan Zheng Zai Zheng Fen Duo Miao Di Xun Zhao Neng Dui Kang Xin Guan Bing Du De Yi Miao He Liao Fa 。

Zui Jin , Yi Zu Yan Jiu Ren Yuan Hui Zhi Chu Liao Xin Guan Bing Du Yong Yu Fu Zhuo He Gan Ran Ren Lei Xi Bao De Ci Tu Dan Bai De Xiang Xi Jie Gou , Cong Er Ke Neng Wei Yan Zhi Yi Miao Da Kai Da Men 。

Dan Qiao Ai – Pei Ya Shuo , Yi Miao De Wen Ti Zai Yu ,“ Cong Qian Zai Yi Miao Dao Dong Wu Mo Xing Zai Dao ( Suo Xu De ) Ge Zhong Lin Chuang Shi Yan , Zou Wan Zhe Xie Cheng Xu Xu Yao Hen Chang Shi Jian ”。

Bu Guo , Zhuan Jia Men Ren Wei , Yi Miao Hen Ke Neng Jiang Zai 18 Dao 24 Ge Yue Hou Chu Xian , Zhe Jiao Zhi Tong Chang Xu Yao De 10 Nian Shi Jian Yi Suan Fei Su 。

Ran Er , Ai Po Si Tan Shuo , Zhuan Jia Men Reng Zai Yan Fa Yi Miao , Zhe Yi Wei Zhuo Ta Men Ren Wei Xin Guan Bing Du Bu Hui Hen Kuai Xiao Shi 。

Mei Guo Tian Na Xi Zhou Fan De Bi Er Te Da Xue Chuan Ran Bing Zhuan Jia Wei Lian · Sha Fu Na Shuo :“ Wo Ren Wei Xin Guan Bing Du Bu Da Ke Neng Wan Quan Xiao Shi , Yin Wei Ta Hen Rong Yi Chuan Bo 。”

Bian Cheng Ji Jie Xing Ji Bing

Shi Jie Wei Sheng Zu Zhi Cheng ,“ Hen Nan , Ye Hen Shao Neng ” Xiao Mie Yi Zhong Ji Bing 。 Yao Zuo Dao Zhe Yi Dian , Bi Xu You Ke Yong Yu Zu Duan Chuan Bo De Gan Yu Cuo Shi , Bi Xu You Neng Fa Xian Ke Neng Dao Zhi Chuan Bo De Bing Li De Zhen Duan Gong Ju , Er Qie Ren Lei Bi Xu Shi Gai Bing Du De Wei Yi Chu Cun Su Zhu 。

Ai Po Si Tan Shuo , Ji Shi Ren Lei She Fa Yi Zhi Zhu Liao Zhe Zhong Bing Du , Ta Ye You Ke Neng Bian Cheng Yi Zhong Ji Jie Xing Ji Bing , Ran Hou Xiang Liu Gan Huo Pu Tong Gan Mao Deng Qi Ta Ji Jie Xing Ji Bing Yi Yang Mei Nian Juan Tu Zhong Lai 。 Dan Ge Deng Shuo , Mu Qian Shang Bu Qing Chu Gan Ran Guo Zhe Zhong Bing Du De Ren Shi Fou Hui Zai Ci Gan Ran 。

Bao Dao Cheng , Jin Guan Zui You Ke Neng Dao Zhi Zai Ci Gan Ran De Yin Su Shi Mian Yi Li Xia Jiang , Dan Huan You Yi Zhong Ke Neng Xing Shi , Bing Du Hui Bu Duan Bian Yi Zhi Zhi Neng Bi Kai Ren Lei De Mian Yi Xi Tong 。 Ge Deng Shuo :“ Mu Qian Mei You Zheng Ju Biao Ming Xin Guan Bing Du Zheng Zai Fa Sheng Zhong Da Bian Yi 。 Xian You Bing Du Ji Yin Xu Lie Ji Hu Shi Yi Yang De 。”

Hen Nan Yu Ce Zhe Zhong Bing Du Wei Lai Jiang Ru He Fa Zhan 。 Dan Ai Po Si Tan Shuo , Ji Shi Wu Fa Yu Ce Zhe Zhong Bing Du Wei Lai De Qing Kuang , Ren Men Ye Ke Yi Wei Ci Zuo Hao Zhun Bei 。

Wu Ti Zhong Xin Fang Cang Yi Yuan Chu Yuan Zong Ren Shu “ Po Bai ” La !

Jin Ru Yi Qing Di Tu >>   Qu Wei Gong Yi Juan Kuan >>

Xian Shang Fei Yan Huan Zhe Qiu Zhu Zhuan Qu >>

Yuan Biao Ti : Wu Ti Zhong Xin Fang Cang Yi Yuan Chu Yuan Zong Ren Shu “ Po Bai ” La !

2 Yue 28 Ri Xia Wu , Wu Han Ti Yu Zhong Xin Fang Cang Yi Yuan You You Xin Guan Fei Yan Zhi Yu Huan Zhe 29 Ren Jing Jian Cha Ping Gu Hou Zheng Shi Chu Yuan , Zhi Ci , Wu Han Ti Yu Zhong Xin Fang Cang Yi Yuan Lei Ji Chu Yuan Zong Ren Shu Yi Da 112 Ren 。 Chu Yuan De Xin Guan Fei Yan Huan Zhe , Yan Ge Yi Ju Guo Jia Wei Jian Wei Fa Bu De 《 Xin Xing Guan Zhuang Bing Du Gan Ran De Fei Yan Zhen Liao Fang An ( Shi Xing Di Liu Ban )》 Biao Zhun Jian Ce , Ti Wen Hui Fu Zheng Chang 3 Tian Yi Shang 、 Hu Xi Dao Zheng Zhuang Ming Xian Hao Zhuan 、 Fei Bu Ying Xiang Xue Xian Shi Yan Zheng Ming Xian Xi Shou 、 Lian Xu Liang Ci Hu Xi Dao Bing Yuan He Suan Jian Ce Wei Yin Xing ( Cai Yang Shi Jian Jian Ge Zhi Shao 1 Tian )。 Ling Wai , Chu Cang De Huan Zhe Ye Hui Yan Ge An Zhao Gui Fan , Ju Jia Jin Xing 14 Tian Zi Wo Ge Li 。

2 Yue 12 Ri , Guo Jia ( Jiang Su ) Jin Ji Yi Xue Jiu Yuan Dui Zhuan Zhan Wu Ti Zhong Xin Fang Cang Yi Yuan , Zhi Yong Liao Bu Dao 24 Xiao Shi Jiu Wan Cheng Bing Fang Jian Li 、 Zhi Du Jian She He Yuan Gan Fang Hu Chou Jian Gong Zuo , Bing Shun Li Shou Zhi Di Yi Pi Huan Zhe 。 Jing Guo Shi Duo Tian De Fen Zhan , Mu Qian Huan Zhe Chu Cang Yi Jing Jin Ru Zong Gong Jie Duan 。 Yi Xue Jiu Yuan Dui 37 Wei Yi Hu Ren Yuan Tong Li Xie Zuo , Jia Da Jian Yue CT、 Fu Cha He Suan 、 Huan Zhe Gou Tong Ji Shai Cha Chu Yuan Huan Zhe Li Du ,2 Yue 26 Ri Qi , Huan Zhe Fu Cha CT Shu Liang Cong 60 Ge / Tian Zuo You Shang Sheng Zhi 140 Ge / Tian Zuo You , Fu Cha He Suan Shu Liang Cong 50 Ge / Tian Zuo You Shang Sheng Zhi 150 Ge / Tian Zuo You 。 Guo Jia ( Jiang Su ) Yi Xue Jiu Yuan Dui Yu Ji , Wei Lai Ji Tian Nei , Jin 600 Ren De Wu Han Ti Yu Zhong Xin Fang Cang Yi Yuan Jiang Hui You Ban Shu Huan Zhe Neng Kang Fu Chu Yuan 。( Zong Tai Yang Shi Ji Zhe Wu Zuo )

Tan Fang Hu Bei Xiao Gan “ Li E Tong Dao ”: Yan Fang Si Shou

Jin Ru Yi Qing Di Tu >>   Qu Wei Gong Yi Juan Kuan >>

Xian Shang Fei Yan Huan Zhe Qiu Zhu Zhuan Qu >>

Yuan Biao Ti : Tan Fang Hu Bei Xiao Gan “ Li E Tong Dao ”: Yan Fang Si Shou

Xin Hua She Wu Han 2 Yue 29 Ri Dian Ti : Tan Fang Hu Bei Xiao Gan “ Li E Tong Dao ”: Yan Fang Si Shou

Xin Hua She Ji Zhe Wu Xiao Yang Hu Hu Hu Chen Zuo

Jin Ri , Li E Tong Dao Guan Kong Yin Qi Guang Fan Guan Zhu 。 Xiao Gan Shi Da Wu Xian E Shou Hu Bei “ Bei Da Men ”, Jing Gang Ao Gao Su Gong Lu Chuan Jing Er Guo , Xian Nei Lian Tong He Nan De Sheng Dao 、 Xian Xiang Dao Zhong Duo 。 Dang Di Li E Tong Dao Guan Kong De Zen Yang ? Ji Zhe Jin Ri Shi Di Tan Fang 。

Li Xiao Gan Cheng Qu Bu Yuan , Ji Zhe Cong Yang Dian Shou Fei Zhan Jin Ru Jing Gang Ao Gao Su 。 Jian Cha Tong Xing Zheng Jian 、 Che Liang Xiao Du 、 Ren Yuan Deng Ji 、 Ce Liang Ti Wen , Gao Su Gong Lu Ru Kou De “ Pan Cha ” Yi Yang Bu Shao 。

Dao Da Da Wu Xian Da Xin Shou Fei Zhan , Chu Kou De “ Pan Cha ” Gen Ru Kou Yi Yang 。 Zhe Shi Jing Gang Ao Gao Su Zai Hu Bei Jing Nei Zui Bei Bian De Shou Fei Zhan , Zai Wang Bei De Chu Ru Kou Jiu Dao Liao He Nan Jing Nei 。 Zhi Qin Ren Yuan Biao Shi , Mu Qian Zhi You Fang Yi Wu Zi Yun Shu 、 Sheng Huo Bao Zhang Wu Zi Yun Shu 、 Gong Shui Gong Dian Tong Xin Bao Zhang 、 Jiu Hu Jiu Yi He You Tong Xing Zheng Jian De Gong Wu Che Liang Ke Yi Tong Xing , Qi Ta Che Liang He Ren Yuan Yi Lv Quan Fan 。

Sui Hou , Ji Zhe Lai Dao Da Wu Xian San Li Cheng Zhen Hong Shan Cun Sheng Dao 324 Xian E Yu Jiao Jie Chu , Fa Xian Gong Lu Yi Bei Zan Shi Ge Duan 。

“ Da Nian Chu Yi Jiu Feng Liao , Zui Jin Wo Men You Zeng Jia Liao Lu Zhang , Pai Ren 24 Xiao Shi Zhi Shou , Jian Jue Fang Zhi Yi Qing Shu Chu 。” San Li Cheng Zhen Dang Wei Shu Ji Tan Xin Kuan Shuo , Da Nian Chu Er Na Tian , Huan You 100 Duo Liang Che Xiang Cong Zhe Tiao Lu Qu He Nan , Quan Bu Bei Quan Fan , Che Liang He Ren Yuan Du Bu Xu Tong Xing 。

Ta Huan Jie Shao Shuo , Chu Liao Jing Gang Ao Gao Su Yi Wai , San Li Cheng Zhen You 5 Tiao Tong Dao Lian Jie He Nan , Xian Zai Quan Bu Cai Qu Liao Ge Duan Cuo Shi 。 Chu Liao 3 Tiao Pian Pi Bian Dao ,2 Tiao Zhu Yao Dao Lu Sheng Jie Chu Du You Ren 24 Xiao Shi Zhi Shou 。 San Li Cheng Zhen Que Zhen He Yi Si Bing Li Yi Lian Xu 34 Tian “ Ling Xin Zeng ”, Dan Fang Kong Yi Dian Mei You Fang Song 。

Hou Lai , Ji Zhe You Lai Dao Xuan Hua Dian Zhen Bei Gang Cun , Na Li Shi Sheng Dao 108 Xian E Yu Jiao Jie Chu 。 Hu Bei Yi Ce De Dao Lu Yong Gang Tie Jia Gou He Zhan Ban Zuo Liao Ge Duan , Liu Xia Yi Dao Xiao Kou Ke Yi Guo Ren 。

Jian Cha Dian De Ji Lu Xian Shi ,1 Yue 25 Ri Yi Lai , Zhe Ge Jian Cha Dian Gong You 32 Ren Tong Xing , Qi Zhong Yi Ming Fa Guan Fan Gang 、 Liang Ming Zhi Liu Wai Di Ren Yuan Fan Xiang , Fen Bie Shi Dan Wei He Xiang Zhen Pai Che Lai Jie Hui Qu De , Qi Ta Du Shi Dang Di Cun Min Lai Qu Dai Gou Wu Pin 。

Ju Xuan Hua Dian Zhen Zhen Chang Xu Gao Fei Jie Shao , Quan Zhen You 7 Tiao Tong Dao Lian Jie He Nan , Chu Sheng Dao 108 Xian Yi Wai , Qi Ta Du Shi Xiang Cun Bian Dao , Jun Yi Che Di Ge Duan , Wei Fa Xian Tou Yue Sheng Jie De Qing Kuang 。

Wu Han Hui Ying Cai Jia Wu Jia Guo Gao ( Han Shi Pin )

Jin Ru Yi Qing Di Tu >>   Qu Wei Gong Yi Juan Kuan >>

Xian Shang Fei Yan Huan Zhe Qiu Zhu Zhuan Qu >>

Yuan Biao Ti : Wu Han Hui Ying Cai Jia Wu Jia Guo Gao

Shi Pin | Wu Han Hui Ying Cai Jia Wu Jia Guo Gao

Wu Han Shi Ren Min Zheng Fu Fu Shi Chang Xu Hong Lan Biao Shi , Yi Qing Qi Jian Wu Liu Cheng Ben Ren Gong Cheng Ben Shi Ping Shi 3 Bei , Zhi Jie Tui Dong Cai Jia Wu Jia De Shang Zhang 。 Cai Qu Si Da Cuo Shi :① Da Xing Shang Chao He Dian Shang Ping Tai Jiang Jia Hui Min ;② Jia Da Zheng Fu Chu Bei Dong Rou Tou Fang Li Du , Di Yu Shi Chang Jia 15% Xiao Shou ;③ Mian Xiang Di Shou Ru Qun Ti # Wu Han Tui Chu 10 Yuan 10 Jin Shu Cai Bao #;④ Gong Bu Zhong Yao Sheng Huo Wu Zi Ling Shou Jia Ge , Rang Shi Min Ming Bai Xiao Fei 。

Zhan “ Yi ” Gai Xie Shi Jie Shi

Jin Ru Yi Qing Di Tu >>   Qu Wei Gong Yi Juan Kuan >>

Xian Shang Fei Yan Huan Zhe Qiu Zhu Zhuan Qu >>

Yuan Biao Ti : Zhan “ Yi ” Gai Xie Shi Jie Shi

Zhong Suo Zhou Zhi ,18 Shi Ji Zhong Ye De Ying Guo , Fa Sheng Liao Hou Lai Cheng Zhi Wei “ Gong Ye Ge Ming ” De Gong Ye Sheng Chan Kuai Su Zeng Chang , Er Ren Kou Zeng Chang Yu Ci De Guan Xi , Zai Shi Xue Jie You Qi Shi Ying Guo Shi Xue Jie , Yi Zhi Shi Ge Zhong Shuo Fen Zuo De Hua Ti 。

Gen Ju Mu Qian Dui Shu Yi 、 Nue Ji He Qi Ta Chuan Ran Bing Cong Ying Guo Nong Cun Xiao Shi De Liao Jie , Yi Ji Ying Guo Zai Kong Zhi Tian Hua Shang De Nu Li , Ke Jian Ta Yu Fa Guo Bu Tong De Xin Yi Bing Mo Shi , Huo De Liao Zuo Wei 18 Shi Ji Ou Zhou Nai Zhi Shi Jie Li Shi De Jue Ding Xing Yin Su Zhi Yi De Di Wei 。 Da Ying Di Guo De Xing Qi He 1763 Nian Hou Fa Guo Cong Hai Wai De Zan Shi Che Tui , Ken Ding Cheng De Shang Shi Mei Zhou 、 Fei Zhou 、 Ya Zhou Yi Ji Ou Zhou Li Shi De Guan Jian Zhuan Zhe Dian 。

Zao Yu Yi Bing De Shi Jie

Jin Guan Zai 18 Shi Ji Shi , Ke Xue Yi Xue De Zhong Da Tu Po Shang Wei Dao Lai , Dan Yi Xia De Shuo Fa Si Hu Bing Bu Huang Tang : Chuan Ran Bing Zhong Yao Xing De Jiang Di ( You Yi Xue Jin Bu De Cheng Fen , Dan Zhu Yao You Yu Ren Men Wan Quan Yi Shi Bu Dao De Sheng Tai Diao Zheng ), Gou Jian Liao “ Qi Meng Yun Dong ” De Zhe Xue He She Hui Ren Shi Pu Ji Hua De Ji Ben Bei Jing 。 Yi Wai Si Wang Zai Mei Ge Ren De Ren Sheng Jing Li Zhong Reng Shi Zhen Shi Bing Qie Ju You Ke Neng De Shi Jie Zhong , Na Zhong Ren Wei Yu Zhou Shi Yi Bu Gui Lv Yun Dong De , Ke Yi Liao Jie Shen Zhi Ke Yi Yu Jian De Ju Da Ji Qi De Xiang Fa , Si Hu Bu Zu Yi Ling Ren Xin Fu Di Jie Shi Shi Ren Yan Qian De Xian Shi 。

Bi Jing Chuan Ran Bing De Zao Fang Mei You Gui Lv Ye Bu Ke Yu Jian , Que Cong Bu Hui Bei Huan Zhe Shi Wei Wu Guan Jin Yao 。 Yin Ci , Zai 17 Shi Ji Tian Wen Xue He Shu Xue De Cheng Guo Wei Shi Su Hua De Shi Jie Guan Dian Ding Ji Chu Zhi Qian , Huan De Shou Xian Rang Chuan Ran Bing Fang Song Ta Dui Ren Lei Shen Ti Nai Zhi Ling Hun De Kong Zhi 。 Shu Yi He Nue Ji De Tui Chu He Ren Men Dui Tian Hua De Kong Zhi , Wei 18 Shi Ji Jing Ying Quan Li Po Wei Shi Zuo De Zi Ran Shen Lun De Chuan Bo , Ti Gong Liao Zhi Guan Zhong Yao De She Hui Bei Jing 。

Zai Zhe Yang De Shi Jie Li , Zhi Ming De Chuan Ran Bing Tu Ran Xi Ji Yi Ge Cheng Nian Ren De Qing Kuang Hen Shao Jian , Gu Er Bu Zai Na Me Xu Yao Xin Yang Shen Yi Yi Qiu Jie Shi Zhe Lei Si Wang 。 Tong Shi , Zheng Xiang Zai Qi Ta Fang Mian De Jin Hua Qing Xing Yi Yang , Xin Chu Xian De Ji Xie Zhu Yi Shi Jie Guan Zhi Chi Tan Suo Geng You Xiao De Yi Liao Fang Fa , Bing Shi Yi Xue Jie Zai Jing Yan Xing Di Chang Shi Xin De Yi Liao Fang Fa Shang Ri Yi Qu Xiang Xi Tong Hua 。 You Ci , Zhen Zheng De Jin Bu Chu Xian Liao : Na Zhong Ren Wei Ren Lei De Zhi Li He Ji Qiao Bu Jin Zai Ji Xie Fang Mian , Ye Neng Zai Jian Kang Fang Mian Gai Shan Sheng Huo De Xiang Fa , Bian De Yue Lai Yue He Li Liao 。

Ke Jian , Ou Zhou Bu Duan Bian Hua De Yi Bing Jing Li , Si Hu Tong Qi Wen Hua Yu Zheng Zhi Shi Ge Jie Duan Zhi Jian Cun Zai Ming Xian De Hu Dong Guan Xi 。 Zai 1494~1648 Nian , Jiu Wen Hua Chuan Tong Jing Shou Liao Ge Wai Ju Da De Ya Li , Na Shi Ren Men Bu De Bu Tong Shi Shi Ying Yue Yang Hang Xing Dai Lai De Ren Yuan 、 Wu Zi 、 Si Xiang He Ji Bing Liu Xing Suo Zao Cheng De Zui Chu Ying Xiang 。

Zong Jiao Gai Ge Xian Qi De Zheng Zhi Yi Shi Xing Tai Feng Bao He Zong Jiao Zhan Zheng , Wu Bu Tu Xian Liao Zhe Xie Ya Li De Cun Zai 。 Zhi Shi Dang Zui Chu De Chong Ji Jian Ruo , Bao Kuo Yi Bing Shuai Tui Ji Qi Bei Geng Ke Yu Jian De 、 Geng Shao Po Huai Xing De Chuan Ran Fang Shi Suo Qu Dai Shi , Suo Wei “ Lao Shi Qi ” De Kuan Song Zheng Zhi He Wen Hua Sheng Huo Fang Shi Cai You Ke Neng Que Li 。 Xian Ran , Zai Dao Zhi Zhe Xie Bian Hua De Zhu Duo Yin Su Zhong , Fa Bing Lv De Bian Hua Zhi Shi Qi Zhong Yi Ge Qie Bu Shi Zui Wei Ming Xian De Yin Su 。 Ran Er , Zhe Ge Yin Su Tong Chang Bei Li Shi Xue Jia Wan Quan Hu Lue , Suo Yi Wo Men Yao Zai Ci Qiang Diao Yi Bing Bu Duan Bian Hua De Zao Yu Shi 。

Shen Qi De Ying Li : Ye Tu 、 Guan Tou 、 Ma Ling Shu

Zai Suo You Sheng Tai Guan Xi Zhong , Mei Dang Yi Ge Huo Yi Qun You Ji Ti Fa Sheng Yi Yi Zhong Da De Tu Bian , Du Hui Zai Sheng Tai Xi Tong Zhong Xun Su Chan Sheng Xin De Ying Li 。 Zhe Xie Ying Li Tong Chang Xian Shi Jian Ruo , Ran Hou Zai Tong Guo Diao Zheng Kong Zhi Zui Chu De Dong Dang ,1859~1960 Nian Fa Sheng Zai Ao Da Li Ya Ye Tu Shen Shang De Qing Kuang Jiu Shi Ru Ci 。

Ying Guo Zhi Min Zhe 1859 Nian Ba Ye Tu Yin Ru Ao Da Li Ya , Yin Que Shao Tian Di , Xin Wu Zhong Xun Su Kuo San Dao Zheng Ge Da Lu , Dui Ren Er Yan Yi Bian Cheng Liao “ Hai Chong ”: Ta Men Chi Diao Ben Ying Shu Yu Mian Yang De Cao , Yang Mao Chan Liang You Ci Jian Shao , Wu Shu Mu Chang Zhu De Li Yi Ye Gen Zhuo Suo Shui 。 Ren Lei Chang Shi Xiao Mie Ye Tu De Nu Li Zhi Dao 1950 Nian Cai Jian Zhuan Ji , Dang Shi Duo Fa Xing Zuo Ye Liu ( Tian Hua De Jin Qin ) Bing Du Bei Cheng Gong Zhi Ru Ye Tu Qun , Zui Chu De Xiao Li Shi Bao Zha Xing De : Jin Jin Yi Ge Ji Jie Li Gan Ran Ye Tu De Si Wang Lv Gao Da 99.8%, Di Er Nian Jiang Dao 90%,7 Nian Yi Hou Si Wang Lv Jin Wei 25%。 Xian Ran , Fei Chang You Li He Xun Su De Xuan Ze Fen Bie Zai Ye Tu He Bing Du Zhong Fa Sheng Liao 。

1750~1850 Nian Jian , Sui Zhuo Gong Ye Ge Ming De Tu Fei Meng Jin , Xi Bei Ou Chu Xian De Qing Xing Ye Shi Ru Ci 。 Zhong Suo Zhou Zhi , Xin De Gong Ye Cheng Shi De Sheng Huo Tiao Jian Chang Qi Lai Kan Shi You Hai Jian Kang De , Ling Wai Jiao Tong Tiao Jian De Jin Bu Shi Ri Yi You Xiao De Shi Wu Fen Pei Fang Shi Zu Ke Fang Fan Di Fang Xing De Ji Zuo Chu Xian 。 Huan You , Shi Wu Bao Cun Ye Tong Yang Zhong Yao 。 Pi Ru , Zai Fa Guo Zheng Fu Ti Chu De Feng Hou Jiang Shang Xia , Guan Tou Yu 1809 Nian Fa Ming Chu Lai Liao , Sui Hou Zai Na Po Lun Jun Dui Zhong Da Gui Mo Di Tou Ru Shi Yong 。 Na Po Lun Zhan Zheng Shi Ou Zhou Ren Jie Zhi Dao Dang Shi Suo Jing Li De Zui Ji Lie De Zhan Zheng 。 Ran Er , Zhan Chang Shang Sun Shi De Bing Yuan Shu , Yuan Bu Ji Yin Chuan Ran Bing Sun Shi De Ren Shu , You Qi Shi Dang Na Po Lun Jun Dui Yu Dui Shou Zai Ou Zhou Jin Xing Gong Fang Shi , Si Yu Ru Ying Sui Xing De Ban Zhen Shang Han 。

Bu Guan Zen Yang , Dao 1800 Nian , Zheng Ge Ou Zhou Du Yi Kai Shi De Ren Kou Kuai Su Zeng Chang Hen Kuai Mi Bu Liao Zhe Xie Sun Shi 。 Er 19 Shi Ji 40 Nian Dai , Shi Wu Gong Ying De Xian Zhi Zai Da Lu De Hen Duo Di Fang Du Cheng Wei Guan Jian Xing Yin Su ,1845 Nian Hou “ Ji E De Si Shi Nian Dai ” Dui Cheng Bai Wan Ren Lai Shuo Shi Zai Nan Xing De 。 Dang Shi , Yuan Yu Mi Lu De Yi Zhong Ji Sheng Jun Cheng Gong Zai Ou Zhou Gao Chan De Ma Ling Shu Tian Li Wen Ding Xia Lai 。 Jie Guo Shi Cheng Bai Wan De Ai Er Lan Ren 、 Bi Li Shi Ren He De Guo Ren Lai Yi Wei Sheng De Ma Ling Shu Pu Bian Qian Shou , Ji Zuo Ban Sui Zhuo Ban Zhen Shang Han He Qi Ta Ji Bing , Zao Cheng Shang Bai Wan Ren De Si Wang 。 Ai Er Lan Nong Cun Ren Kou De Fei Fan Zeng Chang Tu Ran Bing Yong Jiu Di Jie Shu Liao , Zai Jie Xia Lai De Ji Shi Nian Nei , Yi Min Li San Dao Shi Jie Ge Di De You Tai Yi Ai Er Lan Ren , Shen Ke Ying Xiang Zhuo Bei Mei 、 Ao Da Li Ya Yi Ji Ying Di Guo De Qi Ta Bu Fen 。

Chu Liao Xiang 1845~1849 Nian Xi Ji Ou Zhou Ma Ling Shu Tian Zhe Yang Meng Lie Er Duan Zan De Wei Ji Yi Wai , Yin Ji Xie Li Liang Ying Yong Yu Hai Lu Jiao Tong , Dao Zhi Liu Dong Jia Kuai Er Yin Ru De Yi Chang Chuan Ji Bing , Zai 19 Shi Ji Pu Bian Gan Ran Liao Ou Zhou He Shi Jie De Ren Kou 。 Yu Ci Tong Shi , Ren Lei Geng Duo Di Xiang Geng Da De Cheng Shi Zhong Xin Qian Yi , Ye Jin Yi Bu Jia Qiang Liao Yu Yi Wang Chang Jian Chuan Ran Bing De Jie Chu 。 Jie Guo Bian Xing Cheng Liao Mou Zhong Jing Sai , Yi Fang Shi Yi Xue Ji Shu Zai Ou Zhou De Fa Zhan He Gong Gong Guan Li Ti Xi De Wan Shan , Ling Yi Fang Shi Sheng Huo Tiao Jian De Bian Hua Suo Yin Qi De Chuan Ran Bing Ji Man Xing Bing De Qiang Hua 。

Gan Ran Zhi Yuan : Zhang Qi Huan Shi Jie Chu ?

Zhi Dao Jiang Jin 19 Shi Ji Mo , Jing Sai Zai Shi Jie De Ge Da Cheng Shi Zhong Reng Ran Shi Jun Li Di 。 Zai Pei Tao Wei Sheng Cuo Shi Luo Hou De Xin Cheng Shi , Ru Niu Yue He Mei Guo De Da Bu Fen Cheng Shi , Si Wang Lv Shi Ji Shang Shi Ji Ju Ti Gao Liao 。 Dan Cong 19 Shi Ji 80 Nian Dai Kai Shi , Na Xie Cheng Gong Di Jiang Yi Ge Jie Yi Ge Chuan Ran Bing “ Bing Jun ” Jin Xing Fen Li He Yan Jiu De Yi Xue Yan Jiu Zhe , Qu De Liao Yi Xi Lie Xi Ju Xing De Sheng Li 。

Shen Ru Yan Jiu Wang Wang Shi Yi Xue Jia She Ji Chu You Xiao De E Zhi Chuan Ran Bing De Fang Fa , Ru He Cheng Xin Yao Huo Jin Xing Mian Yi Zhu She ; Zai Ru Yin Jin Xin De Wei Sheng Xi Guan , Gai Bian Ren Lei Yu Kun Chong 、 Nie Chi Dong Wu Huo Shang Shu Yi Bing De Qi Ta Ke Ti Dai Su Zhu De Jie Chu Fang Shi ; Huan You Yi Bie De Fang Shi She Fa Da Po Yi Bing Chuan Ran De Ji Cheng Mo Shi 。 Ci Wai , Guo Ji Zu Zhi You Ti Gong Liao Cheng Shi He Guo Jia Dui Fu Chuan Ran Bing De Cuo Shi 。 Zhe Yang , Dao 20 Shi Ji Tou Ji Shi Nian , Yu Fang Yi Xue Bu Jin Zai Ou Zhou Ren , Ye Kai Shi Zai Ya Zhou Ren 、 Fei Zhou Ren De Yi Bing Jing Yan Zhong Ke Shang Liao Shen Shen De Yin Ji 。

Cheng Gong Shi Ju Da De , Yi Zhi Yu Dao Liao 20 Shi Ji Xia Ban Ye , Zhuan Jia Men Chang Yi Yao Ba Wei Xie Ren Lei De Chuan Ran Bing Cong Di Qiu Shang Qing Chu Chu Qu , Bing Ren Wei Zhe Shi Yi Ge Ke Xing De Mu Biao 。 Zheng Ru Guo Qu Suo Xian Xian De Na Yang , Zai Gai Bian Ren Lei Yi Bing Jing Yan Shang Ru Ci Ju Da De Gen Ben Xing Cheng Gong , Tong Shi Hui Liu Xia Qian Zai De Bao Fu : Qu Dai 19 Shi Ji Yi Wu Gai Ge Zhe Bu De Bu Ying Dui De Xin Gong Ye Cheng Shi De Qu Yu Xing Ren Kou Ying Xiang , Hen Ke Neng Shi Zhou Ji Gui Mo Shang De Ren Kou Wei Ji 。

Yin Ci , Ji Shu He Ji Bing Zhi Jian De Jing Sai Jue Bu Hui Chu Xian Yi Bian Dao De Jie Ju , Er Qie Jiu Sheng Tai Guan Xi De Xing Zhi Er Yan , Ye Cong Bu Hui Ru Ci 。

Zao Zai 1546 Nian , Yi Da Li Ming Yi Ji Bo Xue Jia Fo La Ka Si Tuo Luo De Ming Zhu 《 Lun Chuan Ran He Chuan Ran Bing 》 Zhong , Jiu Shou Ci Yi Ke Xue Fang Fa Yan Jiu Liao Shang Han 、 Shu Yi Deng De Lai Yuan Yu Chuan Bo 。 Ta Ming Que Ti Chu Yu Yi Du Tong Xing De “ Zhang Qi Li Lun ” Xiang Dui Li De Jie Chu Chuan Ran Bing Jun Li Lun 。 Ke Zhi Dao 19 Shi Ji Zao Qi , Jin Guan Zhe Wei Di Zhong Hai Zhi Ding Fang Zhi Shu Yi Gui Fan De Jian Yi Gui Zhang Ti Gong Liao Li Lun Gen Ju , Dan Zai Ou Zhou Xue Shu Jie Que Yi Zhi Chu Yu Ruo Shi 。

1802 Nian , Wen Yi Jiang Lin Dao Bei Pai Wang Sheng Duo Ming Ge ( Xian Wei Zhong Mei Zhou Duo Mi Ni Ya Gong He Guo Shou Du ) Zhen Ya Du Sang · Lu Wei Du Er Qi Yi De Fa Guo Jun Dui Shen Shang 。

Duan Duan Ji Ge Yue , Huang Re Bing He Qi Ta Re Dai Bing Che Di Hui Diao Liao Zhe Zhi 3.3 Wan Ren De Jing Rui Zhi Shi , Zhe Yi Shi Jian Yan Zhong Cuo Shang Liao Na Po Lun De Kuang Wang Ye Xin , Po Shi Ta Tong Yi Yu 1803 Nian Ba Lu Yi Si An Na Mai Gei Mei Guo 。

Jian Yi Zhi Zheng Yi Shen Shi “ Jun ”

Zhe Chang Wen Yi Zai Xiao Shi Ou Zhou Hai Wai Li Liang Shang De Xi Ju Xing Biao Xian , Wei Fa Guo Yi Xue Jie De Re Dai Bing Yan Jiu Ti Gong Liao Bu Ke Duo De De Dong Li 。 Dang Huang Re Bing 1822 Nian Zai Ba Sai Luo Na Bao Fa Shi , Ta Men Zhua Zhu Ji Hui Jin Xing Liao Guan Jian Xing De Shi Yan , Yi Pan Bie Jie Chu Chuan Ran Xue Pai He Zhang Qi Xue Pai De Zheng Wu 。 You Ni Gu La Si · Qie Er Wen Ling Dao De Fa Guo Zhuan Jia Zu , Dui Huang Re Bing De Liu Xing Fang Shi Jin Xing Liao Xi Tong Er Shen Shen De Yan Jiu , Ta Men Ren Wei , Ba Sai Luo Na De Gan Ran Ren Qun Mei You Jie Chu Bing Yuan Ti De Ke Neng Xing 。 Zhe Yang Yi Lai , Jie Chu Gan Ran Li Lun Si Hu Bei Zheng Ming Shi Wan Quan Cuo Wu De 。

Zai Jie Xia Lai De 50 Nian Jian , Yi Xue Gai Ge Pai Kai Shi Chai Chu Di Zhong Hai Gang Kou De Yong Jiu Ge Li She Shi , Ren Wei Ta Men Zhi Shi Mi Xin Shi Dai De Yi Cun 。 You Yu Na Shi Que Shao Jing Yan Ji Chu , Mei You Ren Neng Xiang Xiang Chu Kun Chong Ke Neng Shi Ji Bing De Xie Dai Zhe , Bing Jun Li Lun Si Hu Zhu Ding Yao Cheng Wei Li Shi De La Ji 。 You Qi Shi Ying Guo De Zi You Zhu Yi Zhe , Ba Jian Yi Zhi Du Kan Cheng Shi Dui Zi You Mao Yi Yuan Ze De Cu Bao Qin Fan , Bing Zhi Li Yu Qing Chu Zhe Xie Suo Wei Zhuan Zhi He Luo Ma Tian Zhu Jiao Yu Mei De Can Yu 。

Dao Liao 1854 Nian , Yi Wei Jiao Yue Han · Si Nuo De Lun Dun Yi Sheng Zheng Ming , Bao Fa Yu Lun Dun Mou Zhong Yang Jie Qu De Huo Luan , Ke Yi Zhui Su Dao Mou Chu Bei Wu Ran De Yin Yong Shui Yuan 。 Yi Han De Shi , Si Nuo De Zheng Ju Da Duo Shi Bu Lian Guan De Xi Jie , Er Ou Zhou Zui Yan Jin De Zhi Ming Yi Xue Zhuan Jia Gang Gang Ming Que Fou Ding Liao Jie Chu Chuan Ran Li Lun , Si Nuo De Shuo Fa Bing Mei You Zai She Hui Shang Yin Qi Duo Shao Zhu Yi 。 Zhi Dao 19 Shi Ji 80 Nian Dai , Sui Zhuo Xian Wei Jing Dui Bing Yuan Jun De Fa Xian , Cai Xi Ju Xing Di Niu Zhuan Liao Zhe Yi Bian Dao De Xue Shu Yu Lun Dao Xiang 。

Di Yi Pi Bei Fa Xian De Bing Yuan Jun , Shi Tan Ju Gan Jun He Jie He Bing Gan Jun , Fen Bie You Fa Guo Wei Sheng Wu Xue Jia Ba Si De Yu 1877—1879 Nian , De Guo Yi Xue Jia Ke He Yu 1882 Nian Fa Xian ( Ta Yin Zai Fei Jie He Yan Jiu Shang De Gong Xian , Huo De Liao 1905 Nian Nuo Bei Er Yi Xue He Sheng Li Xue Jiang )。 You Yu Ci Qian Zhe Liang Zhong Chuan Ran Bing Du Wei Zeng Yi Ming Xian De Liu Xing Bing Fang Shi Chuan Bo Guo , Fa Xian Ta Men Bing Mei You Ma Shang Dian Fu Yuan Lai Jie Shi Liu Xing Bing De Zhang Qi Li Lun 。 Dan Dang 1883 Nian Ke He Xuan Cheng Yi Jing Fa Xian Liao Dao Zhi Huo Luan De Xin Hu Jun Shi , Qing Kuang Jiu Da Wei Bu Tong Liao , Jia Ru Ke He Shi Zheng Que De , Zhang Qi Li Lun Jiu Shi Cuo Wu De , Zhi Shao Zai Jie Shi Huo Luan Shang Shi Ru Ci 。

Ji Ran Bo Xue De Yi Sheng Men Yi Jing Jie Shou Zhang Qi Li Lun Dui Liu Xing Bing De Jie Shi , Ke He De Jie Lun Zi Ran Zai Zhuan Jia Dang Zhong Zao Dao Jian Jue Di Zhi 。 Chi Zhi 1892 Nian , You Yi Wei Zhu Ming De De Guo Yi Sheng Wei Zheng Shi Bing Jun Li Lun De Miu Wu , He Xia Yi Da Bei Chong Man Huo Luan Hu Jun De Shui , Bing Gao Xing Di Gao Su Ta De Tong Xing Dui Shou , Zi Ji Mei You Bu Liang Fan Ying 。 Ta Shi Xing Yun De , Dan Ta De Xing Wei Wu Yi Kua Da Liao Ying Xiang Huo Luan Chuan Bo De Bu Que Ding Yin Su 。 Zai Zhe Wei Yi Sheng De Li Zi Zhong , Ke Neng Shi Gao Du Jin Zhang Dao Zhi Ta Fen Mi Liao Guo Duo De Wei Suan , Cong Er Sha Si Liao Ta Tun Xia De Huo Luan Hu Jun 。

Fang Yi Miao Fang : Gan Zuo Zhi Yu Jie Zhong Shu

Zao Zai Ke He De Xian Wei Jing Xiang Yi Xue Jie Zheng Ming Xian Dai Wen Yi Zhi Yuan Yi Qian , Huo Luan Zai Mei Guo He Ou Zhou Cheng Shi Chan Sheng De Zhen Dong , Jiu Wei Na Xie Xun Qiu Gai Shan Cheng Shi Wei Sheng 、 Zhu Fang 、 Yi Liao She Shi He Shui Yuan Gong Ying De Gai Ge Zhe Ti Gong Liao Ju Da De Dong Li 。 Zuo Shi Me He Ru He Zuo De Fan Shi Jiu Zai Shen Bian 。18 Shi Ji Ou Zhou Guo Jia De Zheng Fu Huan Fa Xian , Shi Bing He Shui Shou De Sheng Ming Tai Guo Zhong Yao , Bu Neng Wu Wei Di Xiao Hao , Te Bie Shi Dang Jian Dan Er You Bu Ang Gui De Cuo Shi Jiu Ke Yi Zu Zhi Wen Yi Si Nue De Shi Hou 。

Zhu Duo Bao Jian Cuo Shi Zhong , Zui Zhu Ming De Ye Shi Zui You Yi Yi De , Shi Yin Yong Gan Zuo Zhi Yu Fang Huai Xue Bing 。 Dang Yue Yang Hang Hai De Shui Shou Chang Shi Jian Zhi Shi Yong Que Fa Wei Sheng Su De Shi Wu Shi , Jiu Hui Wei Zhe Zhong Bing Suo Chan Rao 。 Zao Zai 1611 Nian , Ning Meng He Gan Zuo De Shi Liao Zuo Yong Jiu Bei Bao Zhi Tui Jian Guo , Ci Hou You Bei Ling Ren Zun Jing De Ming Yi Yuan Yin , Zai Da Liang Yi Xue Wen Xian Zhong Ti Ji 。 Dang Shi , Yin Gan Zuo Zhi Tong Chang Bu Yi Qu De , Xue Shu Jie Ye Tui Jian Guo Qi Ta Zhi Liao Fang Fa , Zhi Dao 18 Shi Ji Mo , Zhe Zhong Fang Fa De Te Shu Liao Xiao Cai Bei Ming Que Ren Ke 。

Ou Zhou Zheng Zhi Shi He Zhi Ye Chang Bei Jun De Xiang Hu Guan Xi , Hen Zhi De Li Shi Xue Jia Gei Yu Geng Duo De Guan Zhu 。 Xian Ran , Ou Zhou Da Lu Jun Zhu Du Cai Zheng Zhi De Xing Qi , Qu Jue Yu Dui Jun Zhu Ma Shou Shi Zhan 、 Xun Lian You Su De Jun Dui 。 Wu Lun Zai Dong Tian Huan Shi Xia Tian , Wu Lun Zai Zhan Chang Huan Shi Jun Ying , Jun Dui De Jian Kang Du Yi Lai Yu Jiang Yi Bing Sun Shi Kong Zhi Dao Zui Di Xian Du De Wei Sheng Bao Jian Zhi Du De Fa Zhan 。 Zheng Qi Hua Yi De Xing Xiang He Yi Shi Ban De Qing Jie Gui Ze , Wu Yi Shi Ou Zhou Jun Dui Bao Zheng Jian Kang De Tu Jing 。 Xian Ran ,18 Shi Ji Jiu Shi Jiang Zhe Zhong Zuo Fa Bian Cheng Tiao Li De Shi Dai , Qi Ying Xiang Li Shi Xing Di Gai Bian Liao Ji Yu Jing Yan Zhi Jun De Xian Zhuang 。

Jiu Xiang Zai Jun Shi Guan Li Ling Yu De Zhu Duo Biao Xian Yi Yang , Fa Guo Ren Ye Yi Zhi Shi Wei Sheng Gui Fan De Que Li Zhe 。18 Shi Ji Zao Qi , Fa Guo Huang Jia Zheng Fu Jiu Jian Li Liao Jun Dui Yi Yuan He Yi Hu Xue Xiao 。18 Shi Ji 70 Nian Dai , Yi Ge Xian Dai De Te Shu Yi Hu Bu Dui Jian Li Liao , Qi Guan Jian De Chuang Xin Shi Yi Sheng Ke Yi Quan Zhi Fu Wu Yu Xin Jian De Jun Dui Yi Liao Ji Gou , Xiang Yi Ban Jun Guan Na Yang Jin Sheng Jun Xian 。 Bu Zai Xiang Cong Qian , Zhi Shi Zai Chu Xian Wei Ji Qing Kuang Huo Po Zai Mei Jie De Zhan Zheng Shi , Cai Lin Shi Ying Zhao Ru Wu 。

Fa Guo Jun Dui De Yi Liao Ji Gou Zhuan Ye Hua Dai Lai De Hao Chu , Chong Fen Zhan Xian Zai Da Ge Ming (1789—1830 Nian ) He Na Po Lun Zhan Zheng (1803—1815 Nian ) Zhi Zhong 。 Cong Ba Li Pin Min Ku He Pian Yuan Xiang Cun Zheng Zhao Lai De Nian Qing Ren , Yi Qi Yuan Yuan Bu Duan Di Chong Shi Zhuo Fa Lan Xi Gong He Guo De Jun Dui Nai Zhi Ge Ge Jie Ceng 。 Jin Guan Xin Bing De Ji Bing Jing Li He Sui Shen Xie Dai De Ji Ti Ge Zhong Ge Yang , Dan Yi Liao Tuan Dui You Neng Li Zu Zhi Da Gui Mo De Yi Bing Bao Fa , Bing Li Yong Xin De Fa Ming , Bi Ru Gong Bu Yu 1789 Nian De Qin Na ( Bei Cheng Wei “ Mian Yi Xue Zhi Fu ” De Ying Guo Yi Xue Jia ) De Yi Miao Jie Zhong Shu , Lai Ti Gao Qi Fu Ze Zhao Gu De Shi Bing De Jian Kang Shui Ping 。 Fou Ze , Zuo Wei Na Po Lun Shi Dai Te Zheng De Da Gui Mo Lu Zhan Jiu Bu Ke Neng Fa Sheng 。 Tong Yang , Ying Guo Hai Jun Neng Gou Chang Nian Lei Yue Di Feng Suo Fa Guo Gang Kou , Qi Dui Ning Meng Zhi De Yi Lai Ji Hu Deng Tong Yu Qiang Pao 。

   Yi Qing Fan Tui Gai Ge

Cong Jun Shi Yi Xue Suo Qu De De Cheng Jiu Lai Kan ,19 Shi Ji San Si Shi Nian Dai De Wei Sheng Gai Ge Mian Lin De Wen Ti , Yu Qi Shuo Shi Ji Shu De , Bu Ru Shuo Shi Zu Zhi De 。 Wu Lun Ru He , Ying Guo De Zi You Zhu Yi Pian Jian Gen Shen Di Gu , Ren Wei Zhe Xie Zhi Du Qin Fan Liao Ge Ren Dui Zi Ji Cai Chan Ren Yi Chu Zhi De Quan Li 。 Zhi Yao Yi Bing Chuan Bo Li Lun Shang Zai Zheng Lun Zhi Zhong , Shuang Fang Jiu Hen Nan Zai Shi Zhi Wen Ti Shang Da Cheng Gong Shi , Zhe Zhong Qing Kuang , Wu Yi Fang Da Liao Dui Huo Luan De Kong Ju 。 Mian Dui Si Wang De Wei Xie , Wu Suo Zuo Wei Yi Jing Nan Yi Jiao Dai , Gong Gong Wei Sheng Ji Gou De Zhi Neng Shi Jin Kuai Liao Duan Na Xie Chen Fu De Bian Lun He Gu Zhi De Chong Tu 。

Huo Luan Yu 1832 Nian Zai Ying Guo De Shou Ci Bao Fa , Tui Dong Liao Di Fang Wei Sheng Wei Yuan Hui De Cheng Li 。 Dan You Yu Wei Yuan Men Cong Di Fang Xuan Chu You Mei You Xin Zi , Tong Chang Que Shao Zhuan Ye Zhi Shi He He Fa Quan Li Lai Gai Bian Dang Di De Sheng Huo Huan Jing 。 Kuang Qie , Bu Shi Mei Ge Wei Yuan Du Ren Wei Ang Zang He Yi Bing You Shi Me Guan Lian 。 Bi Jiao Qi Lai , Jiu Zai Huo Luan Zai Du Jiang Lin Ying Guo De Qian Yi Zhou , Guo Hui Shou Quan Cheng Li Liao Zhong Yang Wei Sheng Wei Yuan Hui 。 Dang Shi , Ya Zhou Huo Luan De Ke Pa Jing Xiang Yi Jing Qian Dong Liao Gong Zhong Zhu Yi Li Chang Da Yi Nian 。 Hao Wu Yi Wen , Zheng Shi Dui Huo Luan Fu Fa De Dan Xin Jia Kuai Liao Guo Hui De Xing Dong 。

Zhong Yang Wei Sheng Wei Yuan Hui Ban Bu Liao Yi Xie Dui Yu Gong Gong Wei Sheng Ying Xiang Shen Yuan De Ji Hua , Zhe Xie Ji Hua Yi You Yi Ge Gai Ge Pai Tuan Ti Da Li Chang Dao Liao 10 Nian Yi Shang , Ta Shi Fen Huo Yue , Cheng Yuan Bu Fa Wei Sheng Gai Ge De Zhu Ming Ti Chang Zhe 。 Zhong Yang Wei Sheng Wei Yuan Hui Li Yong Guo Hui Shou Yu De Fa Lv Quan Li , Zai Ying Guo Cheng Shi Zhong Qing Chu Liao Wu Shu Wu Ran Yuan , Bing Kai Shi Zai Quan Guo Pu Bian Jian She Gong Shui He Xia Shui Dao Xi Tong 。19 Shi Ji 40 Nian Dai , Re Cheng De Gong Li Zhu Yi Gai Ge Zhe Ai De Wen · Cha De Wei Ke Ti Chang , Yong Guang Hua De Tao Guan Jian Cheng Xia Zhai De Pai Shui Guan , Zhu Ru Zu Gou De Shui Ba Fei Wu Chong Xiang Yuan Li Ren Lei Ju Zhu Di De Chu Cun Di , Zai Na Li Jing Guo Jia Gong Hou Mai Gei Nong Min Zuo Fei Liao 。

Wei Wei Chi You Xiao Pai Fang , Shu Shui Zong Guan He Xia Shui Guan Bi Xu Zhi Xian Pu She , Shi Bi Yao Tong Guo Mou Xie Si Ren Ling Di , Dui Dang Shi Hen Duo Ying Guo Ren Er Yan , Zhe You Yi Wei Zhuo Dui Ta Men Quan Li De Qin Fan , Gong Cheng Suo Xu Zi Jin Ye Jiang Shu Mu Ju Da 。 Yin Ci , Ren Men Zhi You Chu Yu Dui Huo Luan Ke Gu Ming Xin De Kong Ju , Cai Ke Neng Ke Fu Gen Shen Di Gu De Fan Dui Zhang Ai 。 Hou Lai , Hua Liao Ban Ge Shi Ji Cai Yan Zhi Chu Chu Li Wu Wu De You Xiao Fang Fa , Shi Qi Bu Zai San Fa Ci Bi De E Chou , Er Da Gui Mo She Li Zhe Yang De Chu Li Xi Tong , Ji Bian Shi Zai Fan Rong Qie Guan Li You Xu De Cheng Shi Zhong , Ye Yao Deng Dao 20 Shi Ji 。

Yu Yin

Sui Shuo Cha De Wei Ke Wei Neng Shi Xian Ta De Quan Bu Ji Hua , Dan Ta Zhi Dao Xia De Zhong Yang Wei Sheng Wei Yuan Hui Zai Qi Cun Zai De 1848—1854 Nian Jian , De Que Xiang Shi Ren Zhan Shi Liao , Ru He Jiang Gong Ye Ge Ming Suo Zao Jiu De Xin Cheng Shi Zhi Li De Geng Jia Fu He Jian Kang Yuan Ze 。 Zhe Tao Xi Tong Xiang Qi Ta Xi Fang Guo Jia De Shu Chu Xiang Dui Kuai Xie , Sui Ran Jing Chang Ye Xu Yao Yong Po Zai Mei Jie De Huo Luan Chuan Ran De Wei Xian , Lai Po Shi Dang Di De Ji De Li Yi Zhe Xiang Wei Sheng Gai Ge De Chang Yi Tuo Xie 。 Zai Mei Guo , Mian Lin Huo Luan Wei Xie Zhi Ji , Yi Ge Yi Ying Guo Wei Yuan Xing De Wei Sheng Wei Yuan Hui Yu 1866 Nian Zai Niu Yue Jian Li Liao 。 Zai Que Shao Zhe Zhong Dong Li De Qing Kuang Xia , Xiang Han Bao Zhe Yang De Da Cheng Shi Jian Chi Ba Ang Gui De Gong Shui Xi Tong Gai Zao Ji Hua Tui Chi Dao 1892 Nian 。 Dang Shi , Huo Luan De Guang Gu Wu Ke Zhi Yi Di Zheng Ming , Shi Yi Chu Wu Ran De Shui Yuan Chuan Bo Liao Yi Bing 。

Wen /( Mei ) Wei Lian · Mai Ke Ni Er Yu Xin Zhong Bi Hui Cheng Yi

Zhong Guo Xiang Yi Lang Pai Chu Ji Kong Zhuan Jia Zu Zhi Chi Kang Yi

Jin Ru Yi Qing Di Tu >>   Qu Wei Gong Yi Juan Kuan >>

Xian Shang Fei Yan Huan Zhe Qiu Zhu Zhuan Qu >>

Yuan Biao Ti : Zhong Guo Xiang Yi Lang Pai Chu Ji Kong Zhuan Jia Zu Zhi Chi Kang Yi

Ju Huan Qiu Shi Bao Liao Jie , Zhong Guo Xiang Yi Lang Pai Chu Liao Yi Ge You 4 Ming Ji Kong Zhuan Jia Zu Cheng De Zhuan Jia Xiao Zu , Zhi Chi Yi Lang Kang Yi 。

Shu Ru Xing Ming Shen Fen Zheng Ke Liao Jie Shi Fou Wei Mi Qie Jie Chu Zhe ( Han Shi Pin )

Jin Ru Yi Qing Di Tu >>   Qu Wei Gong Yi Juan Kuan >>

Xian Shang Fei Yan Huan Zhe Qiu Zhu Zhuan Qu >>

Yuan Biao Ti : Shu Ru Xing Ming Shen Fen Zheng Ke Liao Jie Shi Fou Wei Mi Qie Jie Chu Zhe

Shi Pin – Shu Ru Xing Ming Shen Fen Zheng Ke Liao Jie Shi Fou Wei Mi Qie Jie Chu Zhe

28 Ri , Ke Yan Gong Guan Zu Xin Xi Hua Zhuan Ban Zhuan Jia Zu Zu Chang 、 Zhong Guo Gong Cheng Yuan Yuan Shi Wu Man Qing Biao Shi , Zhong Guo Dian Ke Ji Tuan Jian Li Liao Feng Xian Ren Qun Da Shu Ju Ping Tai 、 Mi Qie Jie Chu Zhe Ce Liang Yi , Shu Ru Xing Ming Shen Fen Zheng Jiu Zhi Dao Zi Ji Shi Bu Shi Mi Qie Jie Chu Zhe 。 You Xie Qi Ye Yan Fa Liao Hong Wai Ce Liang She Bei He Ren Gong Zhi Neng Xiang Jie He , Ke Yi Kuai Su Shi Bie Fa Re Huan Zhe 。 Hu Lian Wang Qi Ye Yan Fa Ren Gong Zhi Neng Fu Zhu Zhen Duan Shou Duan , Ti Gao Liao Zhen Duan Xiao Lv 。 Zong Ti Lai Kan , Da Shu Ju Ji Shu Zai Kang Ji Yi Qing Zhong Fa Hui Liao Te Bie De Ji Ji Zuo Yong 。

Ba Ji Si Tan Mei Ti Shuo Mei Shang Wu Bu Chang Fang Ba Wu Shi Zhi Xing Cheng Guo

Yuan Biao Ti : Ba Ji Si Tan Mei Ti Shuo Mei Shang Wu Bu Chang Fang Ba Wu Shi Zhi Xing Cheng Guo

Xin Hua She Yi Si Lan Bao 2 Yue 27 Ri Dian ( Ji Zhe Li Hao ) Ba Ji Si Tan Mei Ti 27 Ri Bao Dao Shuo , Mei Guo Shang Wu Bu Chang Wei Er Bo · Luo Si Dui Ba Ji Si Tan De Fang Wen Wei Neng Zai Jia Shen Liang Guo Jing Mao Guan Xi Fang Mian Qu De Ren He Tu Po He Shi Zhi Xing Cheng Guo 。

Luo Si 26 Ri Dui Ba Ji Si Tan Jin Xing Liao Wei Qi Yi Tian De Fang Wen 。 Gen Ju Ba Shang Wu Bu Fa Biao De Sheng Ming , Luo Si Fang Wen Qi Jian Ba Mei Shuang Fang Jiu Jin Yi Bu Kai Fa Ba Ji Si Tan Shi Chang 、 Gai Shan Ba Ying Shang Huan Jing 、 Jia Qiang Neng Yuan Ling Yu He Zuo Deng Jin Xing Liao Tao Lun 。 Luo Si Biao Shi , Mei Guo Qi Ye Ke Wang Zeng Jia Dui Ba Tou Zi , Mei Guo You Yi Jia Shen Yu Ba Ji Si Tan De Mao Yi Guan Xi 。

Ju Ba Mei Ti Bao Dao , Luo Si Fang Wen Qi Jian Yu Ba Ji Si Tan Zong Li Yi Mu Lan · Han 、 Ba Neng Yuan Bu Chang Ao Ma Er · A You Bu · Han 、 Ba Zong Li Shang Wu Gu Wen A Bo Du Le · La Zha Ke · Da Wu De Deng Ren Ju Xing Liao Hui Tan 。

Ba Ji Si Tan 《 Xin Wen Bao 》27 Ri Yuan Yin Ba Jin Rong Bu Men Gao Ji Guan Yuan De Hua Bao Dao Shuo , Ba Fang Jiu Liang Guo Zi You Mao Yi Xie Ding 、 Mao Yi Tou Zi Kuang Jia Xie Yi He Mei Guo Dui Ba Ji Si Tan Pu Hui Zhi Dai Yu Deng Ti Chu San Xiang Yao Qiu , Dan Mei Fang Jin Biao Shi Jiang “ Jia Yi Yan Jiu ”, Wei Zuo Chu Ren He Cheng Nuo 。

Bao Dao Shuo , Ba Fang Yuan Ben Qi Dai Ci Ci Fang Wen Qi Jian Mei Guo Hui Tong Guo Yi Xie “ Shi Shi Zai Zai De ” Xing Dong Shen Hua Liang Guo Mao Yi He Shang Ye Guan Xi ,“ Dan Suo You Zhe Xie Qi Dai Du Po Mie Liao ”。

Bei Jing Ri Bao : Shu Ju Fan Dan Geng Jing Shi Si Hao Bu Neng Song Jin

Jin Ru Yi Qing Di Tu >>   Qu Wei Gong Yi Juan Kuan >>

Xian Shang Fei Yan Huan Zhe Qiu Zhu Zhuan Qu >>

Yuan Biao Ti : Shu Ju Fan Dan Geng Jing Shi Si Hao Bu Neng Song Jin

2 Yue 26 Ri , Bei Jing Xin Zeng 10 Li Xin Guan Fei Yan Que Zhen Bing Li 。 Cong Qian Liang Tian De 0 Li 、1 Li , Tu Ran Fan Dan Zhi 10 Li , Zhe Ge Shu Zi , Dui Quan Bei Jing Ren Du Shi Yi Ge Hen Da De Zhen Dong 。

Fang Kong Da Shi Ming Ming Zheng Ti Xiang Hao , Wei He Bei Jing Huan Hui Chu Xian Zhe Yang De Fan Dan ? Cong Ge An Kan , Zhe Shi Yi Qi Zai Jing Dan Wei Zhu Ti Ze Ren Bu Luo Shi De Dian Xing , Song Xie Ma Bi Dao Zhi Ju Bu Bao Fa , Jiao Xing Xin Li Dao Zhi Gong Kui Yi Zuo , Zhe Ge Jiao Xun , Shi Zai Shen Ke , Bi Xu Fan Si 。 Er Zhe Yang Chen Zhong De Jiao Xun , Geng Huo Sheng Sheng Di Yin Zheng Liao Zhi Qian Zhong Yang De Pan Duan : Yue Dao Zhan Ju Xiang Hao De Shi Hou , Yue Yao Zeng Qiang Jin Shen Zhi Xin , Yi Shi Yi Ke Bu Fang Song , Yi Si Yi Hao Bu Ma Hu , Bu Huo Quan Sheng Jue Bu Qing Yan Cheng Gong 。

Sui Zhuo Fu Gong Fu Chan Ti Su , Bei Jing Shu Ru Xing Feng Xian 、 Ju Ji Xing Feng Xian Du Zai Shang Sheng ,“ Wai Fang Shu Ru 、 Nei Fang Kuo San ” Ren Wu Jian Ju 。 Zai Zhe Ge Dou Zheng Jiao Zhuo De Guan Jian Jie Duan , Wei You Yao Jin Ya Guan , Ji Xu Hao Bu Fang Song Zhua Jin Zhua Shi Zhua Xi Ge Xiang Fang Kong Gong Zuo 。 Shui Pi Zuo Da Yi , Na Ge Dan Wei You Si Jiao Mang Qu , Du You Ke Neng Zao Cheng Fang Xian De Ju Bu Shi Shou , Er Yi Dan Shi Shou , Bu Jin Gei Ben Ren 、 Gei Dan Wei Dai Lai Ju Da Ying Xiang , Geng Hui Yan Zhong Gan Rao Quan Shi Fang Kong Da Ju 。

Xing Bai Li Zhe Ban Jiu Shi , Yue Shi Chi Jin Er , Yue Bu Neng Song Jin Er 。 Zhong Nan Shan Yuan Shi Ri Qian Yu Ce ,“ Yi Qing Zai 4 Yue Di Neng De Dao Ji Ben Kong Zhi ”, Yu Qi Shuo Zhe Shi Zhan Shi Yu Ce , Dao Bu Ru Shuo Zhe Shi Quan Guo Ren Min Fen Zhan Yi Ge Duo Yue Huo De De Bao Gui Zhan Guo , Yu Qi Shuo Zhe Shi Gei Da Jia De Yi Ke Ding Xin Wan , Dao Bu Ru Shuo Shi Fa Chu Liao Yi Dao Jue Zhan Ling 。 Shi Shi Shang , Jiu Zai Zhong Lao Zuo Chu Yu Ce De Tong Yi Shi Duan , Lian Xu Xia Jiang Duo Ri De Hu Bei Sheng Wai Di Qu Que Zhen Bing Li Chu Xian Fan Dan , Huan You Di Fang Chu Xian Liao Ju Ji Xing Yi Qing 。 Zhe Du Biao Ming Wo Men De Yi Qing Fang Kong Gong Zuo Jue Fei Tong Qiang Tie Bi , You De Di Fang Shen Zhi Huan You Ming Xian Feng Xi 。 Yu Ci Tong Shi , Guo Ji Fang Yi Xing Shi Chi Jin , Duo Guo Yi Qing Chu Xian Bao Fa Tai Shi 。 Ke Yi Shuo , Wu Lun Cong Na Fang Mian Kan , Xian Zai Du Huan Yuan Wei Dao Ke Yi Song Song Jin 、 Xie Xie Jiao De Shi Hou , Jue Bu Neng You Mang Mu Le Guan De Qing Xu 。 Ru Guo Shuo Qian Qi Fang Kong Gong Zuo Qu De Cheng Xiao , Mi Jue Zai Yi Ge “ Yan ” Zi , Na Me Wei Lai , Wo Men Bi Xu , Zhi Neng Kao Zhe Ge “ Yan ” Zi Qu Duo Qu Zui Hou De Sheng Li 。

Yan Ge Luo Shi “ Si Fang Ze Ren ”, Bu Huo Quan Sheng Jue Bu Qing Yan Cheng Gong , Zhe Shi Zhan Dou De Zi Tai , Ye Shi Wo Men Bi Xu Bao Chi De Zi Tai , Xiang Yi Qie Ma Bi Si Xiang 、 Yan Zhan Qing Xu 、 Jiao Xing Xin Li 、 Song Jin Xin Tai Xuan Zhan , Wei You Ru Ci , Wo Men Cai Neng Zui Zhong Ying De Zhe Chang Yu Shi Jian De Sai Pao 、 Yu Bing Mo De Dou Zheng !

Teachers: Main unions reach agreement with government on pay

Nationwide collective bargaining for teachers (suspended since 2017) made a successful comeback last Wednesday when the five main union confederations (including Ctera grouping around 70 percent of the profession) reached agreement with the Education and Labour Ministries on a pay floor of 23,000 pesos as from tomorrow and 25,000 pesos from July.This pay floor will be bolstered by monthly incentive payments of 1,210 pesos between March and June. Thanks to these incentive payments, the improvement – 13 percent as from tomorrow and 16 percent in July – will end up totalling 23.5 percent overall from the current level of 20,250 pesos.As a result classes will be starting normally throughout the country – this Monday for all but three provinces – except for strike-ridden Chubut Province.Only two meetings were required to achieve this positive result, Education Minister Nicolás Trotta announced at a Wednesday press conference immediately after the pay agreement had been signed. Oil companies and unions agreed on a temporary no layoffs clause Read more…Oil companies and unions agreed on a temporary no layoffs clause Trotta, who kicked off the school year in Mendoza on Wednesday, hailed the “consensus” and described the pay talks as “the first meeting in the challenge which Argentina must now face regarding a progressive process of educational investment.”Apart from Ctera the union groupings signing the agreement were UDA, the CEA, Sadop (private teachers) and AMET (technical schools). Sadop (headed by Jorge Kalinger) had not participated in collective bargaining since the Mauricio Macri administration came to power.Since only nine of the 23 provinces had topped the previous pay floor of 20,250 pesos, considerable outlay will be required from the national government to bring salaries up to 23,000 pesos across the country. Provincial governments have been responsible for paying teachers ever since education, health and other services were decentralised by the Carlos Menem administration in 1991-1992.– TIMES related news President Alberto Fernández meets with business leaders and unionists at the Casa Rosada. Fernández seals first 'social agreement' with business leaders, unions